Alongside this, the Village Underground has organised live painting courses and co-working in the disused underground carriages that it placed on the roof, and it affiliated itself with a series of European networks that bring together similar organisations. In particular, Trans Europe
Halles brings together 56 grassroots spaces across Europe, independent of large chains, that organise a culturally and socially aware programme. This is an empowerment network and capacity building
looking to access European resources.
NIGHT-TIME AVANT-GARDE MOVEMENT
Creating a niche and establishing an identity linked to a solid product is only a viable option for spaces with a history: "In London, the Fabric, Ministry of Sound and Cortical Studios can do this", says Ramello, "as they offer only techno or only electronic and attract a crowd that comes back regularly and becomes an excellence in that field". Leading the way within the night-time economy, on the other hand, are those spaces capable of "combining several different identities: even if night-time activity remains their key source of income, they are not just places for clubbing; they have transformed into more versatile places offering daytime activities, not just music, and resemble more cultural centres. It is, however, a difficult balance to achieve".
It is precisely the cultural
aspect that lies at the root of the elaboration by those who, in recent years, have studied and are looking to contribute to the evolution of the night-time economy. Identifying the value of one's role is fundamental for those involved in the night scene looking to break free of the image that still exclusively links night-time to criminality, drug and alcohol consumption and a lack of safety. "Among the professionals", explains Ramello, there is a different level of awareness of one's own role in the night-time ecosystem, which expresses itself differently according to country, region and city. Berlin, for example, has an extremely high awareness level because its night-life stems from a very powerful event like the fall of the Wall. The high level of politicization of night-time occupations, parties, and clubbing had a strong political and social imprinting and this has stuck over the years. Other cities did not have the same kind of incentive. For example, when we interviewed clubbing professionals in Turin, it was extremely difficult to describe them as cultural operators: they saw themselves as entertainment workers. From a concept point of view, everything changes".